Transport Layer

Transport Layer

Transport Layer, TCP, Application Layer

Transport Layer

The transport layer is the fourth layer of the OSI model and the fifth layer of the TCP/IP model. It is responsible for providing reliable, end-to-end delivery of data between applications on different hosts.

The transport layer provides several services to applications, including:

  • Connection-oriented communication: The transport layer can provide connection-oriented communication between applications. This means that the transport layer ensures that data is delivered in the correct order and that it is not lost or corrupted.

  • Flow control: The transport layer can provide flow control between applications. This means that the transport layer ensures that applications do not send data too quickly for the other application to receive it.

  • Error detection and correction: The transport layer can detect and correct errors in data that is being transmitted.

  • Segmentation and reassembly: The transport layer can segment large datagrams into smaller segments that can be transmitted over the network. The transport layer can also reassemble the segments back into the original datagram at the destination.

Two main protocols operate at the transport layer:

  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): TCP is a connection-oriented protocol that provides reliable, end-to-end delivery of data. TCP is used for applications that require a high degree of reliability, such as file transfers and web browsing.

  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP): UDP is a connectionless protocol that does not provide reliable, end-to-end delivery of data. UDP is used for applications that do not require a high degree of reliability, such as streaming audio and video.

What is transport layer? – TechTarget Definition

Design Issues

  • Performance: The transport layer protocol must be efficient in terms of both time and space. It should not add too much overhead to the data that is being transmitted.

  • Reliability: The transport layer protocol must be reliable in terms of data delivery. It must ensure that data is delivered in the correct order and that it is not lost or corrupted.

  • Security: The transport layer protocol must be secure. It must protect data from unauthorized access and modification.

  • Scalability: The transport layer protocol must be scalable. It must be able to handle increasing amounts of data and traffic.

UDP

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless transport protocol that provides an unreliable, connectionless service at the transport layer of the OSI model or Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). UDP provides a very simple way for applications to send data to each other. It does not require a connection to be established before sending data, and it does not guarantee that data will be delivered in the correct order or that it will not be lost or corrupted.

UDP is often used for applications that do not require a high degree of reliability, such as streaming audio and video. It is also used for applications that need to be able to send data quickly, such as gaming and chat applications.

UDP is a simple and efficient protocol that is well-suited for a variety of applications. It is a good choice for applications that do not require a high degree of reliability and that need to be able to send data quickly.

Here are some of the key features of UDP:

  • Connectionless: UDP is a connectionless protocol. This means that there is no need to establish a connection before sending data.

  • Unreliable: UDP is an unreliable protocol. This means that there is no guarantee that data will be delivered in the correct order or that it will not be lost or corrupted.

  • Efficient: UDP is an efficient protocol. It does not add a lot of overhead to the data that is being transmitted.

  • Simple: UDP is a simple protocol. It is easy to understand and implement.

What Is User Datagram Protocol(UDP)? What are its benefits?

Header Format

The UDP header consists of four fields:

  • Source port: This is the port number of the sending application.

  • Destination port: This is the port number of the receiving application.

  • Length: This is the length of the UDP header and the UDP data.

  • Checksum: This is a checksum that is used to verify the integrity of the UDP header and the UDP data.

The UDP header is always 8 bytes long. The source port and destination port are each 16 bits long, and the length and checksum are each 16 bits long.

The UDP header is used to identify the source and destination of the UDP data and to verify the integrity of the UDP data.

| Source Port (16 bits) | Destination Port (16 bits) | Length (16 bits) | Checksum (16 bits) |

Per-Segment Checksum

The UDP checksum is a 16-bit field in the UDP header that is used to verify the integrity of the UDP datagram. The checksum is calculated by adding up all of the 16-bit words in the UDP datagram, with any overflow being wrapped around. The resulting value is then complemented and placed in the checksum field.

The UDP checksum is used by the receiving host to verify that the UDP datagram has not been corrupted in transit. If the checksum does not match, the receiving host will discard the datagram.

The UDP checksum is a relatively simple checksum algorithm, but it is effective at detecting errors in short datagrams. For longer datagrams, it is recommended to use a more sophisticated checksum algorithm, such as the one used in TCP.

Here is how the UDP checksum is calculated:

  1. Start with the source port and destination port.

  2. Add the length field.

  3. Add the UDP data.

  4. If there is any overflow, wrap around the carry.

  5. Complement the result.

  6. Place the result in the checksum field.

Unicast/Multicast Real-Time Traffic

Unicast and multicast are two different ways of sending data over a network. Unicast is a one-to-one delivery method, where the data is sent from one sender to one receiver. Multicast is a one-to-many delivery method, where the data is sent from one sender to multiple receivers.

Real-time traffic is data that needs to be delivered in a timely manner, such as video or audio streaming. Unicast and multicast can both be used to deliver real-time traffic, but there are some advantages and disadvantages to each approach.

Unicast

  • Pros:

    • Guaranteed delivery

    • Good for low-latency applications

  • Cons:

    • Inefficient for large numbers of receivers

    • Can be expensive

Multicast

  • Pros:

    • Efficient for large numbers of receivers

    • Can be less expensive than Unicast

  • Cons:

    • Not guaranteed delivery

    • Can be more difficult to configure

The best approach for delivering real-time traffic depends on the specific requirements of the application. For applications that require guaranteed delivery and low latency, unicast is the best option. For applications that do not require guaranteed delivery or low latency, multicast can be a more efficient and cost-effective option.

Here are some examples of real-time traffic that can be delivered using unicast or multicast:

  • Video conferencing

  • Live streaming

  • Online gaming

  • VoIP

  • Telemedicine

In general, unicast is the best option for real-time traffic that requires guaranteed delivery and low latency. Multicast is a more efficient and cost-effective option for real-time traffic that does not require guaranteed delivery or low latency.

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented, reliable transport protocol that is used to send data over the Internet. TCP is a fundamental part of the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP), and it is used by most applications that require reliable data transmissions, such as web browsing, email, and file transfer.

TCP provides several features that make it a reliable transport protocol, including:

  • Connection establishment: When two hosts want to communicate using TCP, they first establish a connection. This connection is used to send and receive data.

  • Flow control: TCP uses flow control to ensure that the sending host does not overwhelm the receiving host. Flow control is achieved by using a window size, which is the maximum amount of data that the sending host can send before it waits for an acknowledgement from the receiving host.

  • Error detection: TCP uses error detection to ensure that data is not corrupted in transit. Error detection is achieved by using a checksum, which is a mathematical value that is calculated from the data. The checksum is sent with the data, and the receiving host calculates its own checksum. If the two checksums do not match, the data is discarded.

  • Retransmission: If data is lost or corrupted, TCP will retransmit the data. Retransmission is achieved by using a timer. If the receiving host does not receive an acknowledgement from the sending host within a certain amount of time, the sending host will retransmit the data.

What is Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)? Header, Definition - javatpoint

Connection Management

TCP connection management is the process of establishing, maintaining, and terminating a TCP connection between two hosts. The connection management process consists of the following steps:

  1. Connection establishment: The connection establishment process is used to create a new TCP connection between two hosts. This process is initiated by one host, called the client, and the other host, called the server.

  2. Data transfer: Once the connection has been established, data can be transferred between the two hosts. The data is broken up into small pieces called segments, and each segment is sent individually.

  3. Acknowledgement: The receiving host sends an acknowledgement to the sending host for each segment that it receives. The acknowledgement indicates that the segment has been received correctly.

  4. Retransmission: If a segment is lost or corrupted, the sending host will retransmit the segment. The sending host will keep retransmitting the segment until it receives an acknowledgement from the receiving host.

  5. Connection termination: The connection termination process is used to close a TCP connection. This process is initiated by one of the hosts, and the other host must acknowledge the termination request.

Introduction to TCP connection management - NetSim Help Centre

Reliability of Data Transfers

Transport layer protocols provide reliable and secure communication between application processes. TCP is a reliable data transfer protocol that is implemented on top of the unreliable IP protocol. In reliable data transfer, data is broken up into segments and each segment is acknowledged by the receiving host. If a segment is lost or corrupted, the sending host will retransmit it. In unreliable data transfer, data is sent in the form of packets and there is no guarantee that the data will be received in the correct order or that it will not be lost or corrupted.

TCP Flow Control

TCP flow control is a mechanism used to ensure that the sending host does not overwhelm the receiving host. Flow control is achieved by using a window size, which is the maximum amount of data that the sending host can send before it waits for an acknowledgement from the receiving host.

The window size is negotiated during the connection establishment phase. The sending host sends a window size option to the receiving host, and the receiving host responds with its own window size option. The smaller of the two window sizes is used as the actual window size.

When the sending host has data to send, it will send up to the window size amount of data. The receiving host will acknowledge the receipt of the data, and the sending host can then send more data. This process continues until all of the data has been sent.

If the receiving host's window size is zero, the sending host will stop sending data and will wait for the receiving host to increase its window size. This can happen if the receiving host is busy or if its buffer is full.

TCP Flow Control

TCP Congestion Control

TCP congestion control is a mechanism used to prevent congestion in the network. Congestion occurs when too much data is sent through a network, and the network is unable to handle the load. This can lead to packet loss, delays, and other performance problems.

TCP congestion control is implemented in the TCP sender. The TCP sender uses a variety of techniques to prevent congestion, including:

  • Slow start: When a TCP connection is first established, the TCP sender starts by sending a small amount of data. The TCP sender then gradually increases the amount of data it sends, as long as no congestion is detected.

  • Congestion avoidance: If congestion is detected, the TCP sender will reduce the amount of data it sends. The TCP sender will then gradually increase the amount of data it sends, as long as no congestion is detected.

  • Fast retransmit and fast recovery: If a TCP segment is lost, the TCP sender will retransmit the segment immediately. The TCP sender will also reduce the amount of data it sends, and it will enter the fast recovery phase. In the fast recovery phase, the TCP sender will gradually increase the amount of data it sends, as long as no further losses are detected.

TCP-based Congestion Control Algorithms | Encyclopedia MDPI

TCP Header Format

The TCP header format is a 20-byte header that is used to control the flow of data between two hosts that are communicating using TCP. The TCP header contains the following fields:

  • Source port: The source port is the port number of the sending host.

  • Destination port: The destination port is the port number of the receiving host.

  • Sequence number: The sequence number is a 32-bit number that is used to keep track of the order of the data.

  • Acknowledgement number: An acknowledgement number is a 32-bit number that is used to acknowledge the receipt of data.

  • HLEN: The HLEN field is a 4-bit field that specifies the length of the TCP header in 32-bit words.

  • Control flags: The control flags are a set of flags that are used to control the flow of data.

  • Window size: The window size is a 16-bit number that specifies the maximum amount of data that the sending host can send before it waits for an acknowledgement from the receiving host.

  • Checksum: The checksum is a 16-bit value that is used to verify the integrity of the TCP header and data.

  • Options: The options field is an optional field that can be used to specify additional information, such as the maximum segment size.

TCP vs. UDP

TCP Timer Management

TCP timer management is the process of setting and managing the timers used by TCP to ensure reliable data delivery. The timers are used to detect and recover from lost or damaged data, as well as to prevent connections from being reused too soon.

The four main TCP timers are:

  • Retransmission timer(Time out): This timer is used to retransmit data that has not been acknowledged by the receiving host. If the retransmission timer expires, the sending host will retransmit the data.

  • Keepalive timer: This timer is used to verify that a connection is still active. If the keepalive timer expires, the sending host will send a keepalive probe to the receiving host. If the receiving host does not respond to the keepalive probe, the sending host will close the connection.

  • Time wait timer: This timer is used to prevent connections from being reused too soon after they have been closed. After a connection is closed, the sending host will enter the time wait state. The time wait state prevents the sending host from reusing the connection until the time wait timer expires.

  • Persistent timer: This timer is used to keep sending data even if the receiving host's window size is zero. The receiving host's window size is the amount of data that the receiving host can accept at a time. If the receiving host's window size is zero, it means that the receiving host is not able to accept any more data at the moment. However, the sending host may still have data to send. The persistent timer allows the sending host to keep sending data even if the receiving host's window size is zero.

TCP Timers - Scaler Topics

Application Layer

The application layer is the highest layer of the OSI model. It is responsible for providing services to the user. The application layer is responsible for the following:

  • Data presentation: The application layer is responsible for presenting data to the user in a format that is easy to understand.

  • Data transfer: The application layer is responsible for transferring data between two hosts.

  • Data security: The application layer is responsible for securing data during transmission.

  • Data integrity: The application layer is responsible for ensuring that data is not corrupted during transmission.

The application layer is responsible for a wide range of services, and it is the layer that the user interacts with the most. The application layer is responsible for making the internet user-friendly and secure.

What is the application layer?

Some examples of application layer protocols include:

  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): HTTP is the protocol that is used to transfer web pages over the internet.

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP): FTP is the protocol that is used to transfer files over the internet.

  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): SMTP is the protocol that is used to send email messages.

  • Post Office Protocol (POP): POP is the protocol that is used to receive email messages.

  • Domain Name System (DNS): DNS is the protocol that is used to translate domain names into IP addresses.

WWW

WWW, also known as the World Wide Web, is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the interlinked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

The World Wide Web was invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist working at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Berners-Lee proposed a system of interlinked hypertext documents that could be accessed by anyone with a computer and an Internet connection. The World Wide Web was first released in 1991, and it quickly became the most popular way to access information on the Internet.

The World Wide Web is made up of billions of web pages, which are stored on web servers. Web pages are linked together using hyperlinks, which are words or images that can be clicked on to open a new web page. Web browsers are software programs that are used to view web pages.

The World Wide Web has revolutionized the way we communicate and access information. It has made it possible for people all over the world to share information and ideas with each other. The World Wide Web has also made it possible for businesses to reach a global audience.

HTTP

HTTP is the HyperText Transfer Protocol, which is an application-level protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) that defines how messages are formatted and transmitted on the World Wide Web (WWW). It is a client–server protocol in which the client initiates a request to the server for a specified resource. The server then responds with the requested resource or an error message.

HTTP is stateless, which means that the server does not maintain any information about the client between requests. This makes HTTP very efficient, as it does not require the server to keep track of multiple clients.

HTTP is a text-based protocol, which means that the messages are formatted in plain text. This makes HTTP easy to understand and debug.

HTTP is a very popular protocol, and it is used by billions of people every day. It is the foundation of the World Wide Web, and it is used to transfer all sorts of data, including web pages, images, videos, and files.

Here are some of the key features of HTTP:

  • It is a client–server protocol.

  • It is stateless.

  • It is a text-based protocol.

  • It is very popular.

  • It is the foundation of the World Wide Web.

What is HTTP and how does it work? Hypertext Transfer Protocol Definition

FTP

FTP, or File Transfer Protocol, is a standard network protocol used to transfer files between computers over a TCP/IP connection. FTP is built on a client–server model architecture using separate control and data connections between the client and the server. FTP users may authenticate themselves with a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it.

FTP is a very versatile protocol and can be used to transfer a wide variety of files, including text files, images, videos, and software applications. FTP is also commonly used to upload and download files from websites.

There are many different FTP clients available, both free and commercial. Some popular FTP clients include FileZilla, Cyberduck, and WS_FTP.

FTP works by opening two connections between the client and the server. One connection is used for commands and replies, and the other connection is used for transferring data.

The command connection is used to send commands to the server, such as "list directory" or "upload file." The server responds to these commands with replies, such as "directory listing" or "file uploaded."

The data connection is used to transfer the actual files. The client sends the files to the server, and the server receives the files.

FTP is a very secure protocol. The data connection is encrypted, so that the files cannot be intercepted by third parties. FTP also uses a variety of authentication methods, such as username and password, to protect files from unauthorized access.

FTP is a very useful protocol for transferring files between computers. It is easy to use and there are many different clients available. If you need to transfer files between computers, FTP is a great option.

Here are some of the benefits of using FTP:

  • It is a very versatile protocol and can be used to transfer a wide variety of files.

  • It is easy to use and there are many different clients available.

  • It is a very secure protocol.

  • It is a very reliable protocol.

Here are some of the drawbacks of using FTP:

  • It is a clear-text protocol, which means that the passwords are sent in plain text.

  • It is a very old protocol and does not support some of the newer features of the internet, such as HTTP/2.

  • It can be a bit slow, especially for large files.

What is FTP Tutorial: Overview and Business Use Cases | ExaVault Blog

SSH

SSH, or Secure Shell, is a network protocol that provides a secure way to access a remote computer. It is commonly used to connect to servers, but can also be used to connect to other computers on a local network. SSH uses encryption to protect data in transit, making it a much more secure option than other methods of remote access, such as telnet or FTP.

To use SSH, you will need to know the IP address or hostname of the remote computer, as well as the username and password for that account. Once you have this information, you can use an SSH client to connect to the remote computer.

There are many different SSH clients available, both for Windows and Linux. Some popular clients include PuTTY, OpenSSH, and KiTTY. Once you have installed an SSH client, you can use it to connect to a remote computer by following these steps:

  1. Open the SSH client.

  2. In the host field, enter the IP address or hostname of the remote computer.

  3. In the username field, enter the username for the account on the remote computer.

  4. In the password field, enter the password for the account on the remote computer.

  5. Click the Connect button.

If the connection is successful, you will be prompted to enter a command. You can then use the SSH client to run commands on the remote computer.

To exit the SSH client, type exit and press Enter.

Here are some of the benefits of using SSH:

  • Security: SSH uses encryption to protect data in transit, making it a much more secure option than other methods of remote access, such as telnet or FTP.

  • Portability: SSH is available for both Windows and Linux, making it a very portable protocol.

  • Ease of use: SSH is relatively easy to use, even for beginners.

  • Flexibility: SSH can be used to connect to a variety of different types of servers, including web servers, file servers, and database servers.

What is SSH Protocol? How does it work?

Email (SMTP, MIME, IMAP)

SMTP

SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. It is an Internet standard protocol for electronic mail (email) transmission. SMTP is one of the oldest Internet protocols and is still widely used today.

SMTP is a text-based protocol that uses port 25. It is used to send emails from one server to another. SMTP is a relatively simple protocol, but it is essential for email communication.

Here are some of the key features of SMTP:

  • It is a text-based protocol.

  • It uses port 25.

  • It is used to send emails from one server to another.

  • It is a relatively simple protocol.

SMTP is a critical part of the email infrastructure. It is used by email servers to send and receive emails. SMTP is also used by email clients, such as Outlook and Gmail, to connect to email servers and send and receive emails.

SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol - The Study Genius

MIME

MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. It is a set of rules that define how to format email messages. It allows for the inclusion of text, images, attachments, and other types of data in email messages.

MIME is essential for email communication, as it allows for the exchange of a variety of different types of data. Without MIME, email would be limited to text-only messages.

MIME is a complex set of rules, but it is essential for email communication. It is used by email servers, email clients, and other software that handles email messages.

Here are some of the key features of MIME:

  • It allows for the inclusion of text, images, attachments, and other types of data in email messages.

  • It is a complex set of rules.

  • It is used by email servers, email clients, and other software that handles email messages.

MIME Protocol | Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions - javatpoint

IMAP

IMAP stands for Internet Message Access Protocol. It is a protocol that allows users to access and manage their email messages on a remote server. IMAP is a more sophisticated protocol than POP3, which is the other main protocol for accessing email.

IMAP offers several advantages over POP3, including:

  • The ability to leave messages on the server, so they can be accessed from multiple devices.

  • The ability to search for messages.

  • The ability to create and manage folders.

  • The ability to mark messages as read or unread.

  • The ability to forward and reply to messages.

  • The ability to delete messages.

IMAP is the preferred protocol for accessing email from multiple devices. It is also the preferred protocol for power users who need more control over their email.

Here are some of the key features of IMAP:

  • It allows users to access and manage their email messages on a remote server.

  • It offers several advantages over POP3, including the ability to leave messages on the server, search for messages, create and manage folders, mark messages as read or unread, forward and reply to messages, and delete messages.

  • It is the preferred protocol for accessing email from multiple devices.

  • It is the preferred protocol for power users who need more control over their email.

POP3 vs IMAP (WebMail) – Data Sciences

DNS

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical and distributed naming system for computers, services, and other resources connected to the Internet or other networks using the Internet Protocol (IP). It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the associated entities. Most prominently, it translates easily memorized domain names to the numerical IP addresses needed for locating and identifying computer services and devices with the underlying network protocols. By translating human-friendly domain names to machine-readable IP addresses, the Domain Name System plays a critical role in the functioning of the Internet.

The Domain Name System is implemented in a distributed database system, with a hierarchy of name servers. Each domain name server maintains a database of the names and IP addresses of domains under its control. When a user enters a domain name in a web browser, the browser sends a DNS query to its configured DNS server. The DNS server then queries other DNS servers in the hierarchy until it finds the IP address for the domain name. The DNS server then returns the IP address to the browser, which can then use it to connect to the website.

The Domain Name System is a critical part of the Internet infrastructure. It allows users to easily access websites and other resources on the Internet without having to remember complex IP addresses. The Domain Name System is also used for other purposes, such as email delivery and file sharing.

Here are some of the benefits of using DNS:

  • It makes it easier for users to remember and type domain names.

  • It helps to protect users from phishing attacks by providing a layer of indirection between the user and the website they are trying to access.

  • It can help to improve the performance of websites by caching DNS records locally.

  • It can help to improve the security of websites by preventing unauthorized access to DNS records.

Here are some of the challenges of using DNS:

  • DNS is a complex system that can be difficult to understand and manage.

  • DNS is a distributed system that can be vulnerable to attacks.

  • DNS can be slow, especially for users who are located far away from the authoritative DNS servers for the domains they are trying to access.

What Is DNS and How Does It Work – A Comprehensive Guide

Network Management (SNMP)

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application-layer protocol that facilitates the management of devices on an IP network. It is a widely used protocol that is supported by most network devices, including routers, switches, firewalls, and printers.

SNMP works by using a manager-agent architecture. The manager is a computer program that runs on a host on the network. The agent is a program that runs on the network device. The manager sends requests to the agent, and the agent responds with information.

SNMP can be used to collect a variety of information from network devices, such as:

  • Device status

  • Performance metrics

  • Configuration settings

  • Alerts

SNMP can also be used to change the configuration of network devices. For example, you can use SNMP to restart a device, change a port speed, or disable a service.

SNMP is a powerful tool that can be used to manage and monitor network devices. It is a valuable tool for network administrators who need to keep their networks running smoothly.

Here are some of the benefits of using SNMP:

  • It is a widely supported protocol.

  • It is easy to use.

  • It is a cost-effective way to manage and monitor network devices.

Here are some of the challenges of using SNMP:

  • It can be difficult to secure SNMP.

  • It can be difficult to troubleshoot SNMP problems.

  • SNMP can be a security risk if it is not properly configured.

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