Managing Innovation and Entrepreneurship - 2

Managing Innovation and Entrepreneurship - 2

Navigating the Nexus of Creativity and Strategy: Unveiling the Secrets of Innovation and Management

Sources of innovation

Introduction to Innovation Sources

Innovation is essential for business growth and competitiveness. Understanding the sources of innovation helps organizations to systematically explore and leverage new ideas.

Key Sources of Innovation:

  • Push (Technology Push)

  • Pull (Market Pull)

  • Analogies

Where do innovation come from?

Technology Push


  • Technology push refers to innovations driven by technological advancements. These innovations emerge from R&D activities, new scientific discoveries, and technological breakthroughs, often without an initial market demand.


  • Originates from within the organization, typically from R&D departments.

  • Based on exploiting new technologies and scientific knowledge.

  • Can lead to groundbreaking products and services that create new markets.


  • Electric Vehicles: Development of electric car technology by companies like Tesla before widespread consumer demand.

  • Smartphones: The advancement of mobile technology by companies like Apple, leading to the creation of the iPhone.

Key Points:

  • Technology push requires a proactive approach in identifying potential applications of new technologies.

  • Success depends on the ability to foresee market needs and effectively market the new technology.

Market Pull


  • Market pull refers to innovations driven by market demand. These innovations arise from a clear understanding of customer needs and preferences, often identified through market research.


  • Originates from market needs and demands.

  • Focuses on customer satisfaction and solving existing problems.

  • Often leads to incremental innovations that improve current products and services.


  • Consumer Electronics: Development of user-friendly interfaces in response to consumer demand for easy-to-use devices.

  • Food Products: Introduction of healthier food options driven by increasing health consciousness among consumers.

Key Points:

  • Market pull requires close engagement with customers to understand their needs.

  • Success hinges on the ability to quickly respond to market signals and deliver solutions that meet customer expectations.



  • Analogies involve drawing parallels between different fields or industries to inspire innovative ideas. This method leverages solutions from one domain to solve problems in another.


  • Encourages cross-disciplinary thinking and creativity.

  • Can lead to radical innovations by applying established concepts in new contexts.

  • Often involves thinking outside the box and making unconventional connections.


  • Velcro: Inspired by the way burrs stick to animal fur, leading to the creation of hook-and-loop fasteners.

  • Biomimicry: Innovations like the design of high-speed trains inspired by the beak of a kingfisher bird to reduce noise and improve efficiency.

Key Points:

  • Using analogies requires an open-minded approach and the ability to see connections between seemingly unrelated fields.

  • It is a powerful tool for breakthrough innovations that can disrupt existing markets.

Transfer of Technology

Introduction to Technology Transfer

Technology Transfer:

  • Technology transfer refers to the process of transferring skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, and samples of manufacturing between governments or universities and other institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users.

  • This can include the transfer from developed countries to developing countries, between organizations, or within a company from one department to another.

Importance of Technology Transfer:

  • Facilitates the spread of innovation.

  • Enhances technological capabilities.

  • Promotes economic growth and development.

  • Bridges the gap between the creation of new technologies and their practical applications.

Types of Technology Transfer

1. Vertical Transfer:

  • Transfer of technology from basic research to applied research, development, and production.

  • Often involves moving technology from research institutions to industry.

2. Horizontal Transfer:

  • Transfer of technology across different areas, organizations, or industries.

  • Involves the adaptation of existing technologies to new applications or fields.

3. International Transfer:

  • Movement of technology across national borders.

  • Often seen in multinational corporations, joint ventures, and through international trade agreements.

Mechanisms of Technology Transfer

1. Licensing:

  • A legal arrangement where the technology owner (licensor) grants rights to another party (licensee) to use the technology under specific conditions.

  • Can involve patents, trade secrets, trademarks, or proprietary technology.

2. Joint Ventures and Alliances:

  • Collaborative arrangements between two or more organizations to develop or transfer technology.

  • Can include partnerships, strategic alliances, or consortia.

3. Research and Development (R&D) Contracts:

  • Agreements where one party conducts research and development for another.

  • Often used to transfer technology from academic institutions to industry.

4. Spin-offs:

  • Creation of a new company based on technology developed within an existing organization.

  • Common in university settings where research leads to new business ventures.

5. Direct Investment:

  • Involves setting up operations in a new location to exploit and transfer technology.

  • Can be done through subsidiaries, branches, or joint ventures.

Stages of Technology Transfer

1. Identification:

  • Recognizing and selecting the technology to be transferred.

  • Assessing the potential market and application areas.

2. Adaptation:

  • Modifying the technology to fit the specific needs of the recipient.

  • Ensuring compatibility with existing systems and processes.

3. Implementation:

  • Actual transfer of technology, including training, documentation, and support.

  • Involves setting up manufacturing processes, quality control, and other operational aspects.

4. Absorption:

  • Integration of the new technology into the recipient's operations.

  • Involves training, process adjustments, and ongoing support.

5. Commercialization:

  • Bringing the technology to the market.

  • Includes marketing, distribution, and sales strategies.

Barriers to Technology Transfer

1. Legal and Regulatory Issues:

  • Intellectual property rights, export controls, and regulatory approvals can hinder technology transfer.

2. Cultural and Communication Barriers:

  • Differences in language, business practices, and organizational cultures can create misunderstandings and slow down the transfer process.

3. Financial Constraints:

  • High costs associated with technology acquisition, adaptation, and implementation can be prohibitive.

4. Technological Complexity:

  • Highly complex or advanced technologies may require significant adaptation and support, posing challenges for successful transfer.

5. Lack of Infrastructure:

  • Inadequate infrastructure in the recipient organization or country can limit the effectiveness of technology transfer.

Success Factors in Technology Transfer

1. Strong Partnerships:

  • Building trust and collaboration between the technology provider and recipient is crucial.

2. Clear Agreements:

  • Well-defined contracts and agreements that outline the terms, conditions, and expectations of the technology transfer.

3. Effective Communication:

  • Regular and open communication to address any issues or concerns promptly.

4. Adequate Training and Support:

  • Providing comprehensive training and ongoing support to ensure successful implementation and integration.

5. Continuous Monitoring and Evaluation:

  • Regular assessment of the technology transfer process to identify areas for improvement and ensure alignment with goals.

Creative Methods and Approaches Used in Innovation Management

Innovation management requires creative methods and approaches to foster new ideas and implement effective solutions. Creativity is the backbone of innovation, enabling organizations to solve problems, meet customer needs, and stay competitive in dynamic markets.



  • A group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for solving a problem.


  1. Preparation: Define the problem or goal clearly.

  2. Idea Generation: Participants share ideas freely without criticism.

  3. Evaluation: Ideas are reviewed and the best ones are selected for further development.

Key Points:

  • Emphasizes the importance of a relaxed environment to stimulate free thinking.

  • Encourages diversity in the brainstorming group to bring varied perspectives.

Six Thinking Hats

Six Thinking Hats is a decision-making and problem-solving technique developed by Edward de Bono. It provides a structured approach to thinking by allowing individuals or groups to examine issues from multiple perspectives. Each "hat" represents a different mode of thinking, encouraging diverse viewpoints and fostering comprehensive analysis.

Six Thinking Hats in Product Management

The Six Hats

  1. White Hat: Information and Data

    • Focuses on objective facts and figures.

    • Questions to consider: What information do we have? What information do we need? How can we get the information we need?

    • Example: Reviewing sales data to understand market trends.

  2. Red Hat: Emotions and Intuition

    • Involves feelings, intuitions, and gut reactions.

    • Questions to consider: What do we feel about this? What is our gut reaction?

    • Example: Gauging team members' feelings about a new project proposal.

  3. Black Hat: Caution and Critical Judgment

    • Identifies potential problems and risks.

    • Questions to consider: What are the potential drawbacks? What are the weaknesses?

    • Example: Highlighting possible flaws in a business strategy to avoid failure.

  4. Yellow Hat: Optimism and Benefits

    • Focuses on the positives and values.

    • Questions to consider: What are the benefits? Why is this idea valuable?

    • Example: Identifying the advantages of adopting a new technology.

  5. Green Hat: Creativity and New Ideas

    • Encourages creative thinking and new possibilities.

    • Questions to consider: What are some alternative solutions? How can we think outside the box?

    • Example: Brainstorming innovative features for a new product.

  6. Blue Hat: Process Control

    • Manages the thinking process and ensures that the Six Hats framework is followed.

    • Questions to consider: What is the next step? How can we organize our thinking?

    • Example: Summarizing the discussion and planning the next steps in a project meeting.

How to Use Six Thinking Hats

  1. Preparation:

    • Define the problem or issue clearly.

    • Ensure all participants understand the purpose and process of the Six Thinking Hats.

  2. Sequential Thinking:

    • Use the hats in a sequence to explore different aspects of the problem.

    • The sequence can vary depending on the situation, but a typical order might be Blue, White, Red, Yellow, Black, Green, and then Blue again to summarize.

  3. Facilitated Discussions:

    • A facilitator guides the process, ensuring that participants stay focused on the hat in use.

    • Encourage all participants to contribute under each hat, ensuring a balanced perspective.

  4. Documentation:

    • Record the ideas, insights, and conclusions reached under each hat.

    • Use these records to inform decision-making and future planning.

Benefits of Six Thinking Hats

  • Structured Approach: Provides a clear framework for thinking, helping to avoid confusion and ensure thorough analysis.

  • Diverse Perspectives: Encourages looking at problems from multiple angles, reducing bias and improving decision quality.

  • Improved Collaboration: Facilitates better communication and collaboration within teams by providing a common language and process.

  • Enhanced Creativity: Promotes creative thinking by dedicating time and focus to idea generation.

Key Points:

  • Emphasizes the importance of balancing critical and creative thinking in innovation management.

  • Highlights the role of structured frameworks like Six Thinking Hats in improving problem-solving and decision-making processes.

  • Discusses the use of Six Thinking Hats in various organizational contexts to facilitate innovation and strategic planning.

Mind Mapping


  • A visual representation of ideas and concepts, which helps in organizing information and uncovering new connections.


  1. Central Idea: Start with a central idea or problem.

  2. Branches: Create branches for main categories or themes.

  3. Sub-branches: Add sub-branches for detailed ideas and information.

Key Points:

  • Enhances creativity by allowing free flow of ideas.

  • Facilitates better understanding and memory retention through visual representation.

SCAMPER Technique

SCAMPER is a creative thinking tool used to spark innovation and generate new ideas. It was popularized by Bob Eberle in his book "SCAMPER: Games for Imagination Development." The technique provides a structured approach to thinking by asking seven different types of questions, each represented by a letter in the acronym SCAMPER.

The SCAMPER Acronym

  1. Substitute:

    • Questions: What can be substituted in the process, product, or service? What other material, ingredient, or component can be used instead? Who else can perform this function?

    • Example: Substituting a synthetic material for a natural one to reduce costs or improve durability.

  2. Combine:

    • Questions: What ideas, materials, features, or steps can be combined? Can we merge two or more processes, products, or services?

    • Example: Combining a smartphone with a camera to create a more versatile device.

  3. Adapt:

    • Questions: How can something be adapted to serve a different purpose or function? What else is like this? What other context can this idea be applied to?

    • Example: Adapting a car engine design to improve efficiency in industrial machinery.

  4. Modify:

    • Questions: What can be modified, magnified, or minified? What can be changed in shape, color, motion, sound, or form?

    • Example: Modifying the size of a laptop to create a more portable version.

  5. Put to another use:

    • Questions: How can this product, process, or service be used in a different way? Can it be used by different users or in different contexts?

    • Example: Using an old smartphone as a security camera.

  6. Eliminate:

    • Questions: What can be removed or simplified? Which parts are not necessary and can be eliminated?

    • Example: Eliminating unnecessary features in software to make it more user-friendly.

  7. Rearrange/Reverse:

    • Questions: What can be rearranged or reversed in the process, product, or service? What if we changed the order of operations? What if we did the opposite of what we’re doing now?

    • Example: Rearranging the layout of a retail store to improve customer flow and sales.

How to Use SCAMPER

  1. Identify the Problem or Opportunity:

    • Clearly define the problem, challenge, or opportunity you want to address.
  2. Apply SCAMPER Questions:

    • Systematically apply each of the SCAMPER questions to your problem or opportunity. Encourage free thinking and brainstorming during this process.
  3. Record Ideas:

    • Write down all ideas generated from the SCAMPER questions, no matter how unconventional they may seem.
  4. Evaluate and Refine:

    • Assess the feasibility, potential impact, and practicality of the ideas. Select the most promising ones for further development and refinement.

Benefits of SCAMPER

  • Structured Creativity: Provides a structured approach to brainstorming and innovation.

  • Versatility: Can be applied to a wide range of problems and industries.

  • Simplicity: Easy to understand and use, making it accessible to individuals and teams.

  • Idea Generation: Encourages the generation of a large number of ideas in a short period.

Key Points:

  • SCAMPER is highlighted as a valuable tool for generating new ideas and improving existing processes.

  • The technique is useful in various stages of the innovation process, from ideation to implementation.

  • It emphasizes the importance of questioning assumptions and exploring alternatives to drive innovation.


Example of how SCAMPER can be used to rethink a product's design. For instance, how a company might use SCAMPER to redesign a chair:

  • Substitute: Use a different material for the chair's legs.

  • Combine: Add a storage compartment under the seat.

  • Adapt: Modify the chair to be suitable for outdoor use.

  • Modify: Change the chair's shape to improve comfort.

  • Put to another use: Use the chair in different settings, like offices or dining areas.

  • Eliminate: Remove unnecessary armrests to reduce weight.

  • Rearrange: Change the order of assembly to simplify manufacturing.

Design Thinking

Design Thinking is a user-centered approach to problem-solving and innovation that emphasizes understanding the needs of users, generating creative ideas, and iterating solutions through prototyping and testing. It combines empathy for the context of a problem, creativity in generating insights and solutions, and rationality in analyzing and fitting solutions to the context. Design Thinking is widely used in business and education to foster innovation and address complex challenges.


  • A user-centered approach to innovation that involves understanding the user, challenging assumptions, and redefining problems to identify alternative strategies and solutions.

Stages of Design Thinking:

Design Thinking typically follows five stages, though these stages are not always sequential and can often loop back to previous stages:

  1. Empathize:

    • Objective: Gain an empathetic understanding of the problem through user research.

    • Methods:

      • User Interviews

      • Observations

      • Empathy Maps

      • Personas

    • Outcome: A clear understanding of users’ needs, behaviors, and pain points.

  2. Define:

    • Objective: Clearly articulate the problem you want to solve based on insights from the Empathize stage.

    • Methods:

      • Problem Statements

      • Point of View (POV) Statements

      • Journey Maps

    • Outcome: A well-defined problem statement that guides the ideation process.

  3. Ideate:

    • Objective: Generate a wide range of ideas and potential solutions.

    • Methods:

      • Brainstorming

      • Mind Mapping

      • Sketching

      • SCAMPER Technique

    • Outcome: A diverse set of ideas from which the best ones can be selected for prototyping.

  4. Prototype:

    • Objective: Build simple, tangible representations of selected ideas to explore their feasibility.

    • Methods:

      • Paper Prototypes

      • Digital Mockups

      • 3D Models

    • Outcome: Early versions of solutions that can be tested and iterated upon.

  5. Test:

    • Objective: Test prototypes with users to gather feedback and learn what works and what doesn’t.

    • Methods:

      • Usability Testing

      • A/B Testing

      • Feedback Sessions

    • Outcome: Insights into how well the solution meets user needs and areas for improvement.

Key Principles of Design Thinking

  1. Human-Centered Approach:

    • Focus on deeply understanding the needs, wants, and limitations of the end-users.

    • Empathy is at the core of this approach, requiring designers to immerse themselves in the users' experiences.

  2. Collaboration:

    • Involves multi-disciplinary teams to bring diverse perspectives and expertise.

    • Encourages open communication and co-creation among team members and stakeholders.

  3. Experimentation and Prototyping:

    • Emphasizes the importance of creating prototypes to explore ideas and test their feasibility.

    • Iterative process of building, testing, and refining solutions based on feedback.

  4. Iterative Process:

    • Design Thinking is non-linear and involves repeated cycles of ideation, prototyping, and testing.

    • Continuous iteration helps in refining solutions to better meet user needs.

  5. Bias Towards Action:

    • Encourages moving quickly from ideation to prototyping and testing.

    • Emphasizes doing over excessive planning to learn from real-world feedback.

TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving)

TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadach), translated as the "Theory of Inventive Problem Solving," is a systematic approach for understanding and solving complex problems, especially in the field of engineering and technology. Developed by Genrich Altshuller and his colleagues in the Soviet Union beginning in 1946, TRIZ is based on the study of patterns of invention in the global patent literature.


  • A problem-solving, analysis, and forecasting tool derived from the study of patterns of invention in the global patent literature.

Key Principles of TRIZ

  1. Contradiction:

    • Central to TRIZ is the concept of contradictions, which are obstacles that prevent the achievement of an ideal solution.

    • Technical Contradictions: Situations where improving one parameter leads to the worsening of another.

    • Physical Contradictions: Situations where an element needs to have opposing properties (e.g., being both hot and cold).

  2. Ideality:

    • The notion of ideality refers to the state where a system performs its function without any negative consequences or additional resources.

    • The goal of TRIZ is to approach this ideal state by resolving contradictions and eliminating inefficiencies.

  3. Patterns of Evolution:

    • TRIZ identifies patterns in the way technical systems evolve over time. These patterns help predict future developments and guide innovative problem solving.

    • Common patterns include increasing dynamism, improving controllability, and transitioning from macro to micro levels.

  4. Inventive Principles:

    • TRIZ includes 40 inventive principles that provide generalized solutions to common contradictions.

    • Examples include segmentation, universality, nested doll, and self-service.

  5. Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving (ARIZ):

    • ARIZ is a structured approach within TRIZ that guides problem solvers through a series of steps to identify and resolve contradictions.

    • It includes phases such as formulating the problem, analyzing the problem, and synthesizing a solution.

The TRIZ Process

  1. Problem Definition:

    • Objective: Clearly define the problem and identify the main contradiction.

    • Methods:

      • Problem statement

      • Functional analysis

  2. Problem Analysis:

    • Objective: Analyze the problem to understand its structure and the underlying contradictions.

    • Methods:

      • Root cause analysis

      • System analysis

  3. Solution Generation:

    • Objective: Use TRIZ tools and principles to generate solutions.

    • Methods:

      • Inventive principles

      • Contradiction matrix

      • Substance-field analysis

  4. Solution Evaluation and Implementation:

    • Objective: Evaluate potential solutions and implement the most feasible one.

    • Methods:

      • Cost-benefit analysis

      • Prototyping

      • Testing

TRIZ Tools and Techniques

  1. Contradiction Matrix:

    • A tool used to identify which of the 40 inventive principles can be applied to solve a particular technical contradiction.
  2. 40 Inventive Principles:

    • A set of generalized strategies for solving technical problems. Some examples include:

      • Segmentation: Dividing an object into independent parts.

      • Taking Out: Removing a problematic part or property from an object.

      • Local Quality: Transitioning from a homogeneous structure to a heterogeneous one.

  3. Substance-Field Analysis (Su-Field Analysis):

    • A tool for modeling problems and identifying interactions between substances (materials) and fields (energy).
  4. ARIZ (Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving):

    • A step-by-step method for solving complex problems by breaking them down into manageable parts and applying TRIZ principles.

Approaches to Management of the Innovation Process

Agile Management

Agile Management is a dynamic and iterative approach to project management and product development. It emphasizes flexibility, collaboration, and customer feedback, allowing teams to deliver high-quality products more efficiently. Agile methodologies are particularly suited for environments where requirements and solutions evolve through collaborative efforts.

Key Principles of Agile Management

  1. Customer Collaboration Over Contract Negotiation

    • Engage customers throughout the development process to gather feedback and adjust accordingly.

    • Focus on understanding and meeting customer needs rather than rigidly following contractual terms.

  2. Iterative Development

    • Develop products in small, incremental cycles called iterations or sprints.

    • Each iteration results in a potentially shippable product increment, allowing for continuous improvement and quick responses to change.

  3. Cross-functional Teams

    • Empower teams with diverse skills to work collaboratively and autonomously.

    • Team members share responsibilities and collaborate closely to achieve common goals.

  4. Adaptive Planning

    • Adjust plans and processes based on feedback and changing circumstances rather than following a rigid, predefined plan.

    • Use short planning cycles to stay aligned with project goals and market demands.

  5. Emphasis on Individuals and Interactions Over Processes and Tools

    • Foster a collaborative and communicative team environment.

    • Prioritize direct communication and teamwork over reliance on complex processes and tools.

Agile Frameworks

  1. Scrum

    • Roles: Product Owner, Scrum Master, Development Team.

    • Artifacts: Product Backlog, Sprint Backlog, Increment.

    • Events: Sprint Planning, Daily Scrum, Sprint Review, Sprint Retrospective.

  2. Kanban

    • Focuses on visualizing work, limiting work in progress, and managing flow.

    • Uses a Kanban board to represent work items and their status.

    • Emphasizes continuous delivery and improvement.

  3. Lean

    • Originates from Lean manufacturing principles aimed at maximizing value by eliminating waste.

    • Focuses on delivering only what is necessary to create value for the customer.

Benefits of Agile Management

  • Flexibility: Agile methodologies allow teams to adapt quickly to changing requirements and market conditions.

  • Customer Satisfaction: Regular customer feedback ensures that the final product meets customer needs and expectations.

  • Reduced Risk: Frequent iterations and continuous testing allow for early detection and correction of issues, reducing the risk of project failure.

  • Improved Quality: Continuous integration and testing improve the overall quality of the product.

  • Enhanced Collaboration: Agile practices promote teamwork, communication, and collaboration, leading to more cohesive and productive teams.

Key Points:

  • Agile methods are effective in fast-paced industries where customer preferences and technologies evolve rapidly.

  • Emphasizes the importance of maintaining a balance between structure and flexibility to foster innovation.

  • Highlights case studies and examples of successful agile implementations in various organizations.

Implementation Steps

  1. Adopt an Agile Mindset:

    • Foster a culture that embraces change, collaboration, and continuous improvement.

    • Train teams and stakeholders in agile principles and practices.

  2. Select an Agile Framework:

    • Choose the framework that best suits the project and organizational context (e.g., Scrum, Kanban, Lean).
  3. Plan and Execute Iterations:

    • Conduct regular planning sessions to define goals and tasks for each iteration.

    • Hold daily stand-up meetings to monitor progress and address issues promptly.

  4. Review and Reflect:

    • Conduct sprint reviews and retrospectives to gather feedback and identify areas for improvement.

    • Implement changes based on feedback to enhance future iterations.

  5. Scale Agile Across the Organization:

    • Apply agile principles to other departments and projects to create an agile enterprise.

    • Encourage cross-functional collaboration and continuous learning throughout the organization.

Six Thinking Hats

Definition: Six Thinking Hats is a decision-making and problem-solving tool developed by Edward de Bono that allows individuals to explore different perspectives by "wearing" different hats representing different modes of thinking.

Hats and Perspectives:

  1. White Hat: Focuses on data and information.

  2. Red Hat: Considers emotions and intuition.

  3. Black Hat: Identifies potential problems and risks.

  4. Yellow Hat: Highlights benefits and positives.

  5. Green Hat: Encourages creativity and new ideas.

  6. Blue Hat: Manages the thinking process.


  • Comprehensive Analysis: Encourages exploring all aspects of a problem.

  • Balanced Decision-Making: Reduces bias by considering multiple viewpoints.

  • Enhanced Collaboration: Facilitates structured discussions and collective decision-making.

Key Points:

  • Useful for managing complex innovation projects where diverse perspectives are crucial.

  • Helps in overcoming mental blocks and fostering creative solutions.

More: In Creative methods section

NUF Test

The NUF Test is a practical and straightforward tool used for evaluating the feasibility and potential of new ideas. It helps in the quick assessment of innovative concepts based on three key criteria: New, Useful, and Feasible.

Definition and Purpose

NUF Test:

  • A method to assess ideas based on their novelty, usefulness, and feasibility.

  • Helps in filtering and prioritizing ideas that have real potential and can be realistically implemented.

Components of the NUF Test

  1. New:

    • Definition: The degree to which an idea is original or innovative.

    • Assessment Questions:

      • Is the idea unique or significantly different from existing solutions?

      • Does it offer something that hasn’t been done before?

    • Example: A revolutionary smartphone feature that has not been seen in the market.

  2. Useful:

    • Definition: The value the idea provides in solving a problem or meeting a need.

    • Assessment Questions:

      • Does the idea address a specific problem or need?

      • Is it valuable and beneficial to the target audience?

    • Example: An app that significantly improves productivity for remote workers.

  3. Feasible:

    • Definition: The practicality of implementing the idea with available resources and constraints.

    • Assessment Questions:

      • Can the idea be realistically developed and implemented with the current resources, technology, and time frame?

      • Are there any significant barriers to its execution?

    • Example: A new software feature that can be developed within the existing technical infrastructure and budget.

Application of the NUF Test


  1. Idea Generation:

    • Gather and list out potential ideas through brainstorming sessions or other creative techniques.
  2. Preliminary Filtering:

    • Apply the NUF Test to each idea to quickly assess its viability.

    • Focus on answering the key questions for each criterion (New, Useful, Feasible).

  3. Detailed Evaluation:

    • For ideas that pass the initial NUF Test, conduct a more detailed analysis and feasibility study.

    • Consider factors such as market demand, technical requirements, cost, and potential risks.

  4. Prioritization:

    • Prioritize ideas based on their scores in the NUF Test.

    • Focus resources on the most promising ideas that are innovative, valuable, and practical.

Benefits of the NUF Test

  • Quick Assessment: Provides a fast and efficient way to evaluate a large number of ideas.

  • Focus on Practicality: Ensures that only ideas with real potential are pursued further.

  • Resource Efficiency: Helps in allocating resources to the most promising and feasible ideas.

  • Encourages Innovation: Promotes the generation and evaluation of new and creative ideas.

Key Points:

  • The NUF Test is particularly useful in the early stages of the innovation process to screen a large number of ideas quickly.

  • Encourages focusing on ideas that can realistically be developed into successful products or solutions.

  • Highlights the importance of balancing novelty with practicality to ensure that innovative ideas can be effectively implemented.


A company might use the NUF Test to evaluate new product ideas generated during a brainstorming session:

  • New: Assess if the product idea offers a unique feature not available in existing products.

  • Useful: Determine if the product solves a significant customer problem or fulfills a need in the market.

  • Feasible: Evaluate if the product can be developed with the company's current technological capabilities and budget.

By applying the NUF Test, the company can quickly identify which product ideas have the highest potential for success and should be prioritized for further development.


  1. Explain the different sources of innovation, including push, pull, and analogies. How do these sources contribute to the innovation process?

  2. Discuss the importance of technology transfer in innovation management. Provide examples to illustrate your points.

  3. What are the creative methods and approaches used in innovation management? Discuss at least two such methods in detail.

  4. Describe the approaches to the management of the innovation process, including agile management, Six Thinking Hats, and the NUF test. How do these approaches facilitate innovation?